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guerra pakistan bangladesh

L'obiettivo era quello di schiacciare la resistenza bengalese: i militari orientali furono disarmati e uccisi, arresti ed uccisioni colpirono gli studenti e gli intellettuali. Blog. [221][227], The War Commission, however, rejected the charge that 200,000 Bengali girls were raped by the Pakistan Army, remarking, "It is clear that the figures mentioned by the Dacca authorities are altogether fantastic and fanciful," and cited the evidence of a British abortion team that had carried out the termination of "only a hundred or more pregnancies". [164] In addition to these three countries, an unidentified Middle Eastern ally also supplied Pakistan with Mirage IIIs. El 17 de Diciembre de 1971 finalizaba la "Guerra de Bangladesh". [172], For Pakistan, the war was a complete and humiliating defeat,[32] a psychological setback that came from a defeat at the hands of rival India. La Cina in ogni caso continuò a concedere forniture militari al Pakistan. [231] The official number of the surrendered military personnel was soon released by the Government of Pakistan after the war was over. El de Bangladesh es uno de los genocidios ocurridos después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial de los que menos se habla. Este capítulo sigue, sin embargo, grabado en la sociedad del país, donde se han iniciado varios proyectos para investigar qué ocurrió y dar a conocer esta parte de la historia de Bangladesh. [23][117], In the East, No. Pakistan officially recognised Bangladesh in 1974”. Il 26 marzo il leader della Lega Awami, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, dichiarò l’indipendenza del Pakistan orientale con il nome di Bangladesh, mentre il paese andava rapidamente verso la guerra civile. [27] Pakistani naval sources reported that about 720 Pakistani sailors were killed or wounded, and Pakistan lost reserve fuel and many commercial ships, thus crippling the Pakistan Navy's further involvement in the conflict. Its findings were met with favourable reviews from the political leaders of West Pakistan, with the exception of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the chairman of the Pakistan Peoples Party. [58]:110 Zulfikar Ali Bhutto endorsed the veto,[58]:110 and subsequently refused to yield the premiership of Pakistan to Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. "[197]:133–135 This crash programme reached parity[clarification needed] in 1977 when the first weapon design was successfully achieved. [General] Tikka let loose everything at his disposal as if raiding an enemy, not dealing with his own misguided and misled people. La Guerra d'Alliberament de Bangladesh va ser una guerra entre el Pakistan occidental (actualment Pakistan) i el Pakistan Oriental (des del 1971 oficialment Bangla Desh), que es va desenvolupar des del 26 de març fins al 17 de desembre de 1971.La guerra va començar com una insurrecció al Pakistan Oriental liderada pels Mukti Bahini (Lluitadors per la Llibertat). [56]:686–687 The Awami League leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman stressed his political position by presenting his Six Points and endorsing the Bengalis' right to govern. [94], These pre-emptive strikes, known as Operation Chengiz Khan, were inspired by the success of Israeli Operation Focus in the Arab–Israeli Six-Day War. [13] Questo giorno è ricordato in Bangladesh come il Giorno dei martiri del linguaggio. [10][11], Nel 1948, Mohammad Ali Jinnah primo governatore generale del Pakistan dichiaro a Dacca che "l'Urdu e solo l'Urdu" sarebbe stata l'unica lingua ufficiale dell'intero Pakistan. Take a look: Why we lag behind Explore more on Bangladesh Pakistan. [221][222] The First Report is still marked as classified, while the Supplementary Report's excerpts were suppressed by the news correspondents. "[79]:164 The Hamoodur Rahman Commission endorsed the claims of Bengali terrorism when it critically penned that the ill-treatment of families of multi-ethnic Pakistanis led to the Pakistani military soldiers reacting violently to restore the writ of the government. Spanish translation of Pakistan - a state at war with itself by Lal Khan (May 15, 2007) ... la crisis en la judicatura y ahora el comienzo de la guerra civil en Karachi y en otras partes. L'attacco mirava a neutralizzare le forze aeree indiane con gli aerei ancora a terra. [165], The war stripped Pakistan of more than half of its population, and with nearly one-third of its army in captivity, clearly established India's military and political dominance of the subcontinent. Politici e società civile del Pakistan orientale annunciarono la dichiarazione di indipendenza del Bangladesh. Since China is an ally of Pakistan, the People’s Republic of China reacted with productively towards situation in East Pakistan and the prospect of India invading West Pakistan. [40] As a result, Prime Minister Gandhi was criticised by a section in India for believing Bhutto's "sweet talk and false vows", while the other section claimed the agreement to be successful, for not letting it to fall into "Versailles Syndrome” trap. Magazine Desk-December 12, 2018. It resulted in the independence of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. Mujibnagar. La risposta pakistana consistette nel paracadutare due divisioni di fanteria ed in una contestuale riorganizzazione delle proprie forze oltre che nell'organizzazione delle forze paramilitari dei Razakar, degli Al-Badrs e degli Al-Shams (che erano in gran parte membri della Lega Musulmana, il partito di governo, e di altri gruppi islamici), oltre che di altri bengalesi che si opponevano all'indipendenza, come i musulmani Bihar stabilitisi nel Bengala nel corso della divisione dell'India britannica. Ante esta actitud del gobierno indio, Yahya, presidente de Pakistán, amenazó de guerra a la India si ésta realizase un intento de tomar cualquier parte de Pakistán. And it is just about 45 years before. [169] Many were concerned that Mujib was permitting Indian interference in the country's internal matters[170] and many in the Bangladeshi army resented his attachment with India. After all they both fought a war and got separated. Guerra indo-pakistana del 1971: questo conflitto non nacque dalle tensioni per il Kashmir, ma a causa della crisi economica ed umanitaria innescata dalla guerra di liberazione bengalese nel Pakistan orientale, quando 10 milioni di bengalesi cercarono rifugio nella vicina India. At the most critical moment in our history we failed to check the limitless ambitions of individuals with dubious antecedents and to thwart their selfish and irresponsible behaviour. L'aviazione indiana mise in atto diverse sortite contro il Pakistan e, nel giro di una settimana, ottenne il controllo dei cieli del Pakistan orientale, tale supremazia fu ottenuta quando lo squadrone numero 14 delle forze aeree pakistane fu distrutto dagli attacchi a Tejgaon, Kurmitolla, Lal Munir Hat e Shamsher Nagar. Bangladesh no plegó en a suya independencia so que en meyo d'una guerra de secesión con Pakistán, recebindo o nuevo estato en ista luita o refirme y l'aduya d'a India y d'a Unión Sovietica. In his book The 1971 Indo-Pak War: A Soldier's Narrative, Pakistan Army's Major General Hakeem Arshad Qureshi, a veteran of this conflict, noted: We must accept the fact that, as a people, we had also contributed to the bifurcation of our own country. It includes 257 Indians, 88 Americans, 41 Pakistanis, 39 Britons, 9 Russians, 18 Nepalese, 16 French and 18 Japanese. Molte civili innocenti e disarmati sono stati uccisi a Dacca e in altre città del Bangladesh. Ahsan and Lieutenant-General Yaqub Ali Khan, the media correspondents began airing reports of the Pakistani military's widespread genocide against their Bengali citizens,[69] particularly aimed at the minority Bengali Hindu population,[70][71][32] which led to approximately 10 million people seeking refuge in the neighbouring states of Eastern India. [119]:107–108, The PAF deployed its F-6s mainly on defensive combat air patrol missions over their own bases, leaving the PAF unable to conduct effective offensive operations. [253][254], Military confrontation between India and Pakistan alongside the Bangladesh Liberation War, India's involvement in Bangladesh Liberation War, India's official engagement with Pakistan, Surrender of Pakistan Eastern Command in East Pakistan, Pakistan: War Enquiry Commission and War prisoners, Bangladesh: International Crimes Tribunal. The military action was a display of stark cruelty more merciless than the massacres at Bukhara and Baghdad by Chengiz Khan and Halaku Khan... [General] Tikka... resorted to the killing of civilians and a scorched earth policy. Bangladesh (in le lingua bengali বাংলােদশ litteralmente le pais de Bengala) es un pais de Asia del Sud, situate al nord del golfo de Bengala.Illo es quasi un enclave de India, con un parve frontiera commun con Myanmar.Le pais deveniva independente in 1971, le data del partition de Pakistan.Illo ha constituite antea le "Pakistan Oriental". [32][40] In the post-war era, Pakistan struggled to absorb the lessons learned from the military interventions in the democratic system and the impact of the Pakistani military's failure was grave and long-lasting. A. K. Niazi reportedly commented on Tikka's actions and noted: "On the night between 25/26 March 1971, [General] Tikka struck. La Guerra indo-pakistaní de 1971 foi un conflictu militar importante ente India y Paquistán.La guerra tuvo cercanamente acomuñada cola Guerra de Lliberación de Bangladex (delles vegaes tamién denomada Guerra Civil Pakistaní). [60], In early March 1971, approximately 300 Biharis were slaughtered in riots by Bengali mobs in Chittagong alone. Successivamente, in memoria delle vittime del 1952, l'UNESCO ha dichiarato il 21 febbraio come la Giornata internazionale delle lingue locali. this was the 1st war where some country used rape as weapon. [179]:xxx[180] Demoralized and finding itself unable to control the situation, the Yahya administration fell when President Yahya Khan turned over his presidency to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who was sworn in on 20 December 1971 as President with the control of the military.[181]. [205] R.J. Rummel cites estimates ranging from one to three million people killed. [86] He then said he could guarantee victory if she would allow him to prepare for the conflict on his terms, and set a date for it; Gandhi accepted his conditions. It is best answered by knowledgeable Pakistanis or Bangladeshis. [98]:333 The main Indian objective on the Eastern front was to capture Dacca, and on the Western front was to prevent Pakistan from entering Indian soil. L'obiettivo strategico fu di impedire ai pakistani la penetrazione all'interno della provincia, per poi attaccare i distaccamenti isolati. Il messaggio venne raccolto da una nave giapponese nel golfo del Bengala e ritrasmesso da Radio Australia e in seguito dalla BBC. On 13 June 1971, an article in the UK's Sunday Times exposed the brutality of Pakistan's suppression of the Bangladeshi uprising. [74] Prime Minister Indira Gandhi on 27 March 1971 expressed full support of her government for the independence struggle of the people of East Pakistan, and concluded that instead of taking in millions of refugees, it was economical to go to war against Pakistan. Why your go-to-market strategy should be industry focused; Dec. 1, 2020. [9] I pakistani occidentali erano convinti che i bengalesi non avessero "attitudine militare" al contrario dei Pashtun e degli abitanti nel Punjab; la teoria delle razze marziali fu presto messa da parte come ridicola ed umiliante, tuttavia[9] malgrado le alte spese militari dello Stato unitario il Pakistan orientale non ricevette alcun beneficio in termini di contratti, acquisti e commesse militari. Le forze pakistane, in inferiorità numerica, incapaci di contrastare efficacemente l'attacco indiano, indebolite dai continui attacchi della guerriglia Mukti Bahini, ed impossibilitate nel difendere Dacca, si arresero il 16 dicembre 1971. Hardest hit have been members of the Hindu community who have been robbed of their lands and shops, systematically slaughtered, and in some places, painted with yellow patches marked 'H'. [32][33], During the war, Indian and Pakistani militaries simultaneously clashed on the eastern and western fronts; the war ended after the Eastern Command of the Pakistan military signed the Instrument of Surrender[34][35] on 16 December 1971 in Dhaka, marking the formation of East Pakistan as the new nation of Bangladesh. Travolto da due fronti di guerra, l'esercito pakistano non fu in grado di reggere l'urto e dichiarò la resa il 16 dicembre. Anyhow, if East Pakistan was not created in 1947 along with West Pakistan, Bangladesh would have never been created and remained a part of India. Operation Searchlight, followed by Operation Barisal, attempted to kill the intellectual elite of the east. O genocídio em Bangladesh começou em 26 de março de 1971 com o lançamento da Operação Holofote, [1] quando o Paquistão Ocidental iniciou uma ofensiva militar na ala oriental do país para reprimir os bengalis que exigiam autodeterminação. Historically, this was not always the case: from 1947 to 1971 they were administered under the same government. The government outlawed the Awami League, which forced many of its members and sympathisers into refuge in Eastern India. Niazi (Cdr. [109], The damage inflicted on the Pakistan Navy stood at 7 gunboats, 1 minesweeper, 1 submarine, 2 destroyers, 3 patrol crafts belonging to the coast guard, 18 cargo, supply and communication vessels; and large-scale damage inflicted on the naval base and docks in the coastal town of Karachi. Moreover, the army had failed to fulfill its promises of fighting to the last man. Nel 1972 l'accordo di Shimla sancì la fine delle ostilità tra India e Pakistan. India e Bangladesh condividono 54 fiumi. [citation needed], On the brink of defeat in around 14 December 1971, the media reports indicated that the Pakistan Army soldiers, the local East Pakistan Police they controlled, razakars and the Shanti Committee carried out systematic killings of professionals such as physicians, teachers, and other intellectuals,[199][200] as part of a pogrom against the Bengali Hindu minorities who constituted the majority of urban educated intellectuals. Le operazioni di guerriglia rallentarono in agosto per garantire la formazione delle truppe. President Yahya Khan postponed the inauguration of the National Assembly, causing a shattering disillusionment to the Awami League and their supporters throughout East Pakistan. Peaceful night was turned into a time of wailing, crying and burning. L'identità negata:la guerra di liberazione del Bangladesh come disfacimento dell'ideale artificioso di Pakistan unito L'Unione Sovietica riconobbe il Bangladesh, il 25 gennaio 1972. [citation needed], Unlike the 1965 war, the Navy NHQ staffers and commanders of the Pakistan Navy knew very well that the Navy was ill-prepared for the naval conflict with India. Esercito e milizie paramilitari si macchiarono sistematicamente di atrocità volte al genocidio della popolazione bengalese. Esto es sólo por nombrar algunos de los pocos acontecimientos del torbellino que se está produciendo en Pakistán. Non appena le forze occidentali lanciarono l'operazione, Sheikh Mujib, com'era chiamato dalla sua gente, firmò una dichiarazione ufficiale: Oggi il Bangladesh è un paese sovrano e indipendente. "Securitization, social identity, and democratic security: Nixon, India, and the ties that bind. [154] China objected to admitting Bangladesh on the grounds that two UN resolutions concerning Bangladesh, requiring the repatriation of Pakistani POWs and civilians, had not yet been implemented. [73]:23–24 The resulting flood of impoverished East Pakistani refugees strained India's already overburdened economy. Con l'intensificarsi degli scontri fra pakistani e Mukti Bahini circa 10 milioni di persone, principalmente hindu, cercarono rifugio negli stati indiani dell'Assam e del Bengala occidentale.[19]. [27], At the end of the war, PAF pilots made successful escapes from East Pakistan to neighbouring Burma; many PAF personnel had already left the East for Burma on their own before Dacca was overrun by the Indian military in December 1971. Hasan, Women of Pakistan Apologize for War Crimes, 1996, Sheikh Mujib wanted a confederation: US papers, by Anwar Iqbal, Dawn, 7 July 2005, Page containing copies of the surrender documents, A website dedicated to Liberation war of Bangladesh, Giornata internazionale delle lingue locali, Butcher Of Bengal | Gen. Tikka Khan, 87; 'Butcher of Bengal' Led Pakistani Army - Los Angeles Times, Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century, Bangladesh sets up war crimes court - Central & South Asia - Al Jazeera English, Demons of December — Road from East Pakistan to Bangladesh, The Tilt: the U.S. and the South Asian Crisis of 1971, Bangladesh Liberation War Picture Gallery, https://it.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Guerra_di_liberazione_bengalese&oldid=117419250, Template Webarchive - collegamenti all'Internet Archive, Voci non biografiche con codici di controllo di autorità, licenza Creative Commons Attribuzione-Condividi allo stesso modo, Indipendenza del Pakistan orientale con il nome di Bangladesh. Indo-Pakistani War of 1971; Part of the Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts and Bangladesh Liberation War: First Row: Lt-Gen. A.A.K. The organisations include the BBC, Akashbani (All India Radio), International Committee of the Red Cross, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Oxfam and Kolkata University Shahayak Samiti. Initially, there were 12 copies that were all destroyed, except for the one that was kept and marked as "Top Secret" to prevent the backlash effects on the demoralised military. La Guerra indo-pakistaní de 1971 foi un conflictu militar importante ente India y Paquistán.La guerra tuvo cercanamente acomuñada cola Guerra de Lliberación de Bangladex (delles vegaes tamién denomada Guerra Civil Pakistaní). [209] There had been reports of Bengali insurgents indiscriminately killing non-Bengalis throughout the East; however, neither side provided substantial proofs for their claims and both Bangladeshi and Pakistani figures contradict each other over this issue. [159]:80[verification needed] When Pakistan called for unilateral ceasefire and the surrender was announced, the Shah of Iran hastily responded by preparing the Iranian military to come up with contingency plans to forcefully invade Pakistan and annex its Balochistan province into its side of Balochistan, by any means necessary, before anybody else did it. A União Soviética apoiou firmemente os lutadores pela liberdade bengalis durante a Guerra de Libertação de Bangladesh e forneceu assistência significativa, reconhecendo que a independência de Bangladesh enfraqueceria a posição de seus rivais - os Estados Unidos e a China. Durante la guerra, también hubo violencia étnica entre bengalíes y biharis de habla urdu. Press, page 66. [195]:62–100 Major investments were directed towards modernising the navy. Come ogni conflitto dell’epoca, la guerra di liberazione bengalese si andò a posizionare all’interno delle dinamiche della Guerra Fredda: gli americani sostennero il Pakistan, al contrario dei sovietici, che presero le parti del Bangladesh e dell’India. [173][174], From the geopolitical point of view, the war ended in the breaking-up of the unity of Pakistan from being the largest Muslim country in the world to its politico-economic and military collapse that resulted from a direct foreign intervention by India in 1971. L'esercito del Pakistan e milizie estremiste religiose (i fondamentalisti di Razakars, Al-Badr e Al-Shams), commisero sistematicamente atrocità verso la popolazione, alla ricerca del genocidio della comunità bengalese. [51]:xxx The League's election success caused many West Pakistanis to fear that it would allow the Bengalis to draft the constitution based on the six-points and liberalism. [126]:1–2, The War Enquiry Commission later exposed the fact that for the Pakistan Army and Pakistan Marines, the arms and training of marines, soldiers and officers were needed at every level, and every level of command. At least, the White House was actively against the idea of a dismembered Pakistan. Anthony Mascarenhas in Bangladesh: A Legacy of Blood estimates that during the entire nine-month liberation struggle more than 1 million Bengalis may have died at the hands of the Pakistan Army. [4], This air action marked the official[clarification needed] start of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971; Gandhi ordered the immediate mobilisation of troops and launched a full-scale invasion of Pakistan. [201][202], Young men, especially students, who were seen as possible rebels and recruiters were also targeted by the stationed military, but the extent of casualties in East Pakistan is not known, and the issue is itself controversial and contradictory among the authors who wrote books on the pogrom;[203][204] the Pakistani government denied the charges of involvement in 2015. After the war, the Pakistan Army's generals in the East held each other responsible for the atrocities committed, but most of the burden was laid on Lieutenant-General Tikka Khan, who earned notoriety from his actions as governor of the East; he was called the "Butcher of Bengal" because of the widespread atrocities committed within the areas of his responsibility. [195]:62–63 In addition, Pakistan sought to have a diversified foreign policy, as Pakistani geostrategists had been shocked that both China and the United States provided limited support to Pakistan during the course of the war, with the US displaying an inability to supply weapons that Pakistan needed the most. A Thought from Bangladesh. [32] Mostly, Indian leaders seemed pleased by the relative ease with which they had accomplished their goals—the establishment of Bangladesh and the prospect of an early return to their homeland of the 10 million Bengali refugees who were the cause of the war. [135]:73[141] However, it was vetoed by the Soviet Union, and the following days witnessed the use of great pressure on the Soviets from the Nixon-Kissinger duo to get India to withdraw, but to no avail.[142]. Following the end of the British Raj, the two countries formed a single state for 24 years. [134], However, the Indo-Soviet treaty did not mean a total commitment to every Indian position, even though the Soviet Union had accepted the Indian position during the conflict, according to author Robert Jackson. Il potere era sempre rimasto saldamente nelle mani dell'establishment occidentale, sebbene la maggioranza della popolazione vivesse ad est.

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