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arabia saudita città

[140], In the absence of national elections and political parties,[137] politics in Saudi Arabia takes place in two distinct arenas: within the royal family, the Al Saud, and between the royal family and the rest of Saudi society. Saudi Arabia,[c] officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,[d] is a country in Western Asia constituting the vast majority of the Arabian Peninsula. [392] In November 2005, Saudi Arabia was approved as a member of the World Trade Organization. [149] The key ministries are generally reserved for the royal family,[137] as are the 13 regional governorships. With the first phase of Saudization into effect, 70% of sales job are expected to be filled by Saudis. [599] As a consequence, Saudi youth "generally lacks the education and technical skills the private sector needs" according to the CIA. Women were not allowed to take part in the poll. Petroleum was discovered on 3 March 1938 and followed up by several other finds in the Eastern Province. [408], Water supply and sanitation in Saudi Arabia is characterized by significant investments in seawater desalination, water distribution, sewerage and wastewater treatment leading to a substantial increase in access to drinking water and sanitation over the past decades. Se la Mecca è il luogo sacro più famoso dell’Arabia Saudita, Medina è altrettanto importante a livello religioso. [569], In August 2013, a law was passed that criminalized domestic violence against women. [316] 2013 saw Saudi military spending climb to $67bn, overtaking that of the UK, France and Japan to place fourth globally. Since his concert last November, Mariah Carey, Sean Paul and Akon all performed in various Saudi cities. [289] Another documentary by Bryan Fogel, The Dissident, which excavated a web of deceit behind the murder, was to be released on the same day that marked second death anniversary of Khashoggi. Major imports in 2010–14 included 45 combat aircraft from the UK, 38 combat helicopters from the US, four tanker aircraft from Spain and over 600 armoured vehicles from Canada. [71] The third state occurred during the early 3rd century BC with bursting economic activity between the south and north that made Lihyan acquire large influence suitable to its strategic position on the caravan road. Homosexual acts are punishable by flogging or death. Centered in Tabouk, it stretched from Wadi Arabah in the north to the area of al-Wejh in the south. Women do not have equal rights to men in the kingdom; the U.S. State Department considers Saudi Arabian government's discrimination against women a "significant problem" in Saudi Arabia and notes that women have few political rights due to the government's discriminatory policies. [205], Retaliatory punishments, or Qisas, are practised: for instance, an eye can be surgically removed at the insistence of a victim who lost his own eye. Saudi Arabia has had five-year "Development Plans" since 1970. There were several anti-government uprisings in the region such as the 1979 Qatif Uprising. Saudi Arabia is now completely self-sufficient in a number of foodstuffs, including meat, milk and eggs. Sezione Consolare. [128] On 18 March the same year, King Abdullah announced a package of $93 billion, which included 500,000 new homes to a cost of $67 billion, in addition to creating 60,000 new security jobs. Saudi Arabia 0-2 Sen... Saudi Arabia 0-2 Senegal (Korea Republic 2017) Monday, 22 May 2017. In December 2011, the Saudi interior ministry arrested three reporters and held them for almost two weeks for questioning after they uploaded a video on the topic to YouTube. [519], In 2017, Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman promised to return Saudi Arabia to the "moderate Islam" of the era before the 1979 Iranian revolution. The result appeared to be a severe blow to the Kingdom’s efforts to improve its image in wake of the ordered killing of the Saudi dissident, Jamal Khashoggi. [94][95] These changes contributed to later uncertainties, such as the dispute with Transjordan over the inclusion of the sanjak of Ma'an, including the cities of Ma'an and Aqaba. Tribal identity remains strong and, outside of the royal family, political influence is frequently determined by tribal affiliation, with tribal sheikhs maintaining a considerable degree of influence over local and national events. Midian, Moab and Edom: The History and Archaeology of Late Bronze and Iron Age Jordan and North-West Arabia p. 163. [31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38], The kingdom spends 8% of its GDP on the military (highest in the world after Oman)[39], which places it as the world's third biggest military spender behind the United States and China[40], and the world's largest arms importer from 2015 to 2019, receiving half of all the US arms exports to the Middle East. [291] Andrew Smith, of Campaign Against Arms Trade (CAAT), said that Hunt and Boris Johnson "played an utterly central and complicit role in arming and supporting the Saudi-led destruction of Yemen. More than a billion Sunnis have simply had enough of them. [566] As of 2018, two women hold cabinet positions in the Saudi government: Dr Tamadur bint Youssef Al Ramah, who was appointed deputy labor minister that year; and Norah bint Abdallah Al Faiz, who became deputy minister of education in charge of women's affairs in 2009. [385] Taking into account the impact of the real oil price changes on the Kingdom's real gross domestic income, the real command-basis GDP was computed to be 330.381 billion 1999 USD in 2010. [201], Capital and physical punishments imposed by Saudi courts, such as beheading, stoning (to death), amputation, crucifixion and lashing, as well as the sheer number of executions have been strongly criticized. [71] The earliest attestation of state regality, King of Lihyan, was in the mid-sixth century BC. The ban includes penalties of a 12-month jail sentence and fines of up to 50,000 riyals ($13,000). Nel centro storico si può passeggiare lungo piccole stradine su cui si affacciano antiche abitazioni, in netto contrasto con le prestigiose boutique, i grattacieli e i lussuosi centri commerciali che costellano Olayah Street, la principale arteria della città. "[80], In 1995, Fahd suffered a debilitating stroke, and the Crown Prince, Abdullah, assumed the role of de facto regent, taking on the day-to-day running of the country. It led to rapid technological (but not cultural) modernization, urbanization, mass public education and the creation of new media. Saudi Arabia maintains a list of sectors in which foreign investment is prohibited, but the government plans to open some closed sectors such as telecommunications, insurance, and power transmission/distribution over time. Saudi Arabia's published reserves have shown little change since 1980, with the main exception being an increase of about 100 billion barrels (1.6×1010 m3) between 1987 and 1988. L'Arabia Saudita è in pajais en l'Asia dal vest. [258], The consequences of the 2003 invasion and the Arab Spring led to increasing alarm within the Saudi monarchy over the rise of Iran's influence in the region. As of 2013[update] four cities were planned. Saudi Arabia is a major exporter of fruits and vegetables to its neighbors. Cosa fare e cosa vedere in inverno in Valtellina tra borghi, monumenti e piste da sci. [180], By the 1970s, as a result of oil wealth and the modernization of the country initiated by King Faisal, important changes to Saudi society were under way and the power of the ulema was in decline. There were divisions within the family over who should succeed to the throne after the accession or earlier death of Prince Sultan. La seva capital és Riad. However, the large influx of foreign workers in Saudi Arabia in the oil industry increased the pre-existing propensity for xenophobia. [341] In January 2016, Saudi Arabia executed the prominent Shia cleric Sheikh Nimr who had called for pro-democracy demonstrations and for free elections in Saudi Arabia. [480] Neither Saudi citizens nor guest workers have the right of freedom of religion. [76], The Lihyanites fell into the hands of the Nabataeans around 65 BC upon their seizure of Hegra then marching to Tayma, and to their capital Dedan in 9 BC. [611] In 2016, 69.7% of the adult population was overweight and 35.5% was obese. [384], In the 1990s, Saudi Arabia experienced a significant contraction of oil revenues combined with a high rate of population growth. | منطقة إدارية; mintaqah idariyya). Additionally, traditional tribal law and custom remain significant. E’ molto moderna e presenta molti grattaceli di varia altezza. Arabia Saudita, rite regnum Arabiae Sauditae (Arabice المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-'Arabiya as-Sa'udiya), est maxima civitas sui iuris in paeninsula Arabica constituta. [204] Between 1996 and 2000, Saudi Arabia acceded to four UN human rights conventions and, in 2004, the government approved the establishment of the National Society for Human Rights (NSHR), staffed by government employees, to monitor their implementation. As of October 2018, the Saudi economy was the largest in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world. The first concerts in Riyadh for 25 years took place the following year. In return, the Al ash-Sheikh support the Al Saud's political authority[188] thereby using its religious-moral authority to legitimize the royal family's rule. • a ovest dal mar Rosso. TERRITORIO • L'Arabia Saudita è un paese del sud-ovest asiatico, il maggiore della penisola arabica confina: • a nord Giordania, Iraq e Kuwait. [147] The king is also the prime minister, and presides over the Council of Ministers of Saudi Arabia and Consultative Assembly of Saudi Arabia. [160], The Saudi government and the royal family have often, over many years, been accused of corruption. In Riyadh the following month King Salman met the head of the Vatican's Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue. [347], In April 2020, the Saudi Supreme Court stated under a royal decree by King Salman that minors who commit crimes will no longer face the death sentence, but will be sentenced to a maximum of ten years of imprisonment in a juvenile detention facility. [142], Except for the southwestern province of Asir, Saudi Arabia has a desert climate with very high day-time temperatures and a sharp temperature drop at night. Situata a 400 km a nord di Medina, Madain Saleh ospita un sito archeologico molto importante. In addition, students are required to take six science subjects which are Maths, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geology and Computer. Style24 [493], "Fierce religious resistance" had to be overcome to permit such innovations as paper money (in 1951), female education (1964), and television (1965) and the abolition of slavery (1962). Guide viaggio turistiche in Italia e all’Estero: Roma, Genova, Milano, Torino, Trieste, Verona, Venezia, Savona, Firenze, Pisa, Siena, Napoli, Cagliari, Bari, Lecce, Catania, Palermo, Parigi, Londra, Dublino, Budapest, Vienna, Barcellona, Monaco, Nizza, Berlino. Proselytizing by non-Muslims and conversion by Muslims to another religion is illegal,[502] and as of 2014[update] the distribution of "publications that have prejudice to any other religious belief other than Islam" (such as Bibles), was reportedly punishable by death. [14] The world's second-largest religion,[15] Islam, emerged in modern-day Saudi Arabia. The government has also made an attempt at "Saudizing" the economy, replacing foreign workers with Saudi nationals with limited success.[393]. [223] There has been an intense debate over whether Saudi aid and Wahhabism has fomented extremism in recipient countries. 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[247] As a result, Saudi Arabia has, to some extent, distanced itself from the US and, for example, refused to support or to participate in the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. [197] Final appeal from both Sharia courts and government tribunals is to the King and all courts and tribunals follow Sharia rules of evidence and procedure. [274], In March 2015, Sweden scrapped an arms deal with Saudi Arabia, marking an end to a decade-old defense agreement with the kingdom. Wadis, however, are very numerous. [143], By custom, all males of full age have a right to petition the king directly through the traditional tribal meeting known as the majlis. [3][598], Memorization by rote of large parts of the Qur'an, its interpretation and understanding (Tafsir) and the application of Islamic tradition to everyday life is at the core of the curriculum. [401], Serious large-scale agricultural development began in the 1970s. "[306] The Saudi government denies these claims or that it exports religious or cultural extremism. An Saudi Arabia mayda gihapon in usá han mga gibatan-oni nga mga kamolupyohan han kalibutan; 50 ka porsyento han 33.4 nga milyon nga molupyo hini mga diri pa naabot hin 25 ka tuig nga panuigon. Tutte le soluzioni per "Citta Dell Arabia Saudita" per cruciverba e parole crociate. The decision came after Swedish Foreign Minister Margot Wallstrom was blocked by the Saudis while speaking about democracy and women's rights at the Arab League in Cairo. [570][571][572], In February 2017, Saudi Arabia appointed its first woman to head the Saudi Stock Exchange. [388], OPEC (the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) limits its members' oil production based on their "proven reserves." [492]), As of 2004[update], approximately half of the broadcast airtime of Saudi state television was devoted to religious issues. [565], In February 2017, Saudi Arabia appointed its first woman to head the Saudi Stock Exchange. [16] Following his death in 632, his followers rapidly expanded the territory under Muslim rule beyond Arabia, conquering huge and unprecedented swathes of territory (from the Iberian Peninsula in west to modern day Pakistan in east) in a matter of decades. "[338] This "tolerance and moderation" has been called into question by the Baltimore Sun, based on the reports from Amnesty International regarding Raif Badawi,[339] and in the case of a man from Hafr al-Batin sentenced to death for rejecting Islam. ", WikiLeaks Shows a Saudi Obsession With Iran, "Saudi Arabia urges US attack on Iran to stop nuclear programme", "Obama advised Netanyahu of Iran talks in September", "Iran nuclear deal: Saudi Arabia and Gulf react with caution", "Insight: Saudis brace for 'nightmare' of U.S.-Iran rapprochement", "US, Saudi drifting apart despite Obama visit", "Saudi Arabian troops enter Bahrain as regime asks for help to quell uprising", U.S. [80], In 2005, King Fahd died and was succeeded by Abdullah, who continued the policy of minimum reform and clamping down on protests. [563], A few Saudi women have risen to the top of the medical profession; for example, Dr. Ghada Al-Mutairi heads a medical research center in California[564] and Dr. Salwa Al-Hazzaa is head of the ophthalmology department at King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Riyadh and was the late King Fahad's personal ophthalmologist. [583][584][585], On 27 September 2019, Saudi Arabia announced new changes to tourist visas for non-religious visits, allowing citizens of 49 countries to apply for E-Visa for 90 days. [205][207][210] In April 2020, Saudi Supreme Court issued a directive to eliminate the punishment of flogging from the Saudi court system, and it is to be replaced by imprisonment or fines. [296], On 17 September 2020, The Guardian released an exclusive report revealing that Saudi Arabia was paving the way for domestic production of nuclear fuel. [401] According to data from Fitch Ratings, over two years starting from May 2016 Saudi Arabia went from having zero debt to raising $68 billion in dollar-denominated bonds and syndicated loans—one of the fastest rates among emerging economies. [554] A woman can only obtain a divorce with the consent of her husband or judicially if her husband has harmed her. In response, a number of limited "reforms" were initiated by King Fahd. [204] The death penalty can be imposed for a wide range of offences including murder, rape, armed robbery, repeated drug use, apostasy, adultery, witchcraft and sorcery and can be carried out by beheading with a sword, stoning or firing squad, followed by crucifixion. [134][135][136], Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarchy. [75] In antiquity, Gulf of Aqaba used to be called Gulf of Lihyan. [116], In 1980, Saudi Arabia bought out the American interests in Aramco. [178] The pact, which persists to this day,[187] is based on the Al Saud maintaining the Al ash-Sheikh's authority in religious matters and upholding and propagating Wahhabi doctrine. It started as a Sheikdom of Dedan, which developed into the Kingdom of Lihyan tribe. [41][42] According to the BICC, Saudi Arabia is the 28th most militarized country in the world and enjoys the region's best military equipment qualititively, after Israel. It is likely that Tarout Island was the main port and the capital of Dilmun. The Saudi Arabia national football team is considered as one of Asia's most successful national teams, having reached a joint record 6 AFC Asian Cup finals, winning three of those finals (1984, 1988, and 1996) and having qualified for the World Cup four consecutive times ever since debuting at the 1994 tournament. [61], At the end of the 4th millennium BC, Arabia entered the Bronze Age after witnessing drastic transformations; metals were widely used, and the period was characterized by its 2 m high burials which was simultaneously followed by the existence of numerous temples, that included many free-standing sculptures originally painted with red colors. The area of modern-day Saudi Arabia formerly consisted of mainly four distinct regions: Hejaz, Najd and parts of Eastern Arabia (Al-Ahsa) and Southern Arabia ('Asir). This also led to Saudi Arabia recalling its ambassador to Sweden. "[598], The religious sector of the Saudi national curriculum was examined in a 2006 report by Freedom House which concluded that "the Saudi public school religious curriculum continues to propagate an ideology of hate toward the 'unbeliever', that is, Christians, Jews, Shiites, Sufis, Sunni Muslims who do not follow Wahhabi doctrine, Hindus, atheists and others". [525] During the Islamic revival movement in the 1980s, and as a political response to an increase in Islamist activism including the 1979 seizure of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, the government closed all cinemas and theaters. [587], The Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman had envisaged the year 2020 in line with his modernization plans, where a record number of Muslims were to visit the Mecca and Medina, new industries were to set up, entertainment sector was meant to flourish, while the crown prince was to host the G20 summit. [205][206][207] The 345 reported executions between 2007 and 2010 were all carried out by public beheading. Saudi Arabia is considered an "energy superpower". Saudi Arabia has since been a totalitarian absolute monarchy, effectively a hereditary dictatorship governed along Islamist lines. [142][491] For many years only two religious holidays were publicly recognized – ʿĪd al-Fiṭr and ʿĪd al-Aḍḥā. Saudi Arabia is not a signatory to the 1951 UN Refugee Convention. [434], Virtually all Saudi citizens are Muslim[436] (officially, all are), and almost all Saudi residents are Muslim. A stadium in Riyadh holds races in the winter. O rei de Arabia Saudita é o monarca absoluto de Arabia Saudita que actúa como xefe de Estado e xefe de goberno. [80][81], For much of the 10th century, the Isma'ili-Shi'ite Qarmatians were the most powerful force in the Persian Gulf. The Red Sea in particular is a rich and diverse ecosystem. [169][170] Prince Bandar denied the allegations. Ma vediamo quali sono le città più importanti. By the 1950s this had led to large governmental deficits and excessive foreign borrowing. Storia, curiosità e informazioni sulla visita al Palazzo del Quirinale di Roma, sede del Presidente della Repubblica Italiana. [230] The $15 billion arms deal with Saudi Arabia is believed to be the largest arms sale in Canadian history. The fertile areas are to be found in the alluvial deposits in wadis, basins, and oases. In 2005, the first municipal elections were held. [147] Saudi Arabia is unique among modern Muslim states in that Sharia is not codified and there is no system of judicial precedent, giving judges the power to use independent legal reasoning to make a decision. A large part of the curriculum at all levels is devoted to Islam, and, at the secondary level, students are able to follow either a religious or a technical track. In 1991, Saudi Arabian forces were involved both in bombing raids on Iraq and in the land invasion that helped to liberate Kuwait. [271], Following a number of incidents during the Hajj season, the deadliest[272] of which killed at least 2,070 pilgrim[273] in 2015 Mina stampede, Saudi Arabia has been accused of mismanagement and focusing on increasing money revenues while neglecting pilgrims' welfare. Mamme Magazine [323] In 2016, the European Parliament decided to temporarily impose an arms embargo against Saudi Arabia, as a result of the Yemen civilian population's suffering from the conflict with Saudi Arabia. Il nome ufficiale di Edge of the World è, in realtà, Jebel Fihrayn, diventata una delle attrazioni più popolari dei dintorni della capitale Riad. [469][f], Islam is the state religion of Saudi Arabia and its law requires that all citizens be Muslims. [3][560], Obesity is a problem among middle and upper class Saudis who have domestic servants to do traditional work but, until 2018, were forbidden to drive and so are limited in their ability to leave their home. [495] Public support for the traditional political/religious structure of the kingdom is so strong that one researcher interviewing Saudis found virtually no support for reforms to secularize the state. There are six elements inscribed on UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity list:[517] Al-Qatt Al-Asiri, female traditional interior wall decoration in Asir; Almezmar, drumming and dancing with sticks; Falconry, a living human heritage; Arabic coffee, a symbol of generosity; Majlis, a cultural and social space; Alardah Alnajdiyah, dance, drumming and poetry in Saudi Arabia. Women's clothes are often decorated with tribal motifs, coins, sequins, metallic thread, and appliques. The Nabataeans ruled large portions of north Arabia until their domain was annexed by the Roman Empire. The king combines legislative, executive, and judicial functions[142] and royal decrees form the basis of the country's legislation. [142] Arabic coffee is a traditional beverage in Arabian cuisine. Among its most productive crops are watermelon, grapes, citrus fruits, onions, squash and tomatoes. [439][440][441][442][443] The official and dominant form of Sunni Islam in Saudi Arabia is commonly known as Wahhabism[444] (proponents prefer the name Salafism, considering Wahhabi derogatory[445]), which was founded in the Arabian Peninsula by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab in the 18th century. "[263] A trip to Saudi by US President Barack Obama in 2014 included discussions of US–Iran relations, though these failed to resolve Riyadh's concerns. The main factors that influence the culture of Saudi Arabia are Islamic heritage and Bedouin traditions as well as its historical role as an ancient trade center. Falconry, another traditional pursuit, is still practiced. As a result, there has been a phenomenal growth in the production of all basic foods. However, despite the gloomy economy and the need to “cut deeply” the government spending, the country had laid plans to acquire Newcastle United worth £300 million. [242], In the Arab and Muslim worlds, Saudi Arabia is considered to be pro-Western and pro-American,[244] and it is certainly a long-term ally of the United States. Institutes devoted to Islamic studies, in particular, abound. [395] The cities will be spread around Saudi Arabia to promote diversification for each region and their economy, and the cities are projected to contribute $150 billion to the GDP. Provinciile sunt, mai departe, divizate în 118 guvernorate , inclusiv cele 13 capitale provinciale, care au un statut diferit de municipiu (amanah) conduse de un primar (amin). [185] The family is second in prestige only to the Al Saud (the royal family)[186] with whom they formed a "mutual support pact"[187] and power-sharing arrangement nearly 300 years ago. [463] In November 2013, Saudi Arabia expelled thousands of illegal Ethiopian residents from the Kingdom. [98], The first "Saudi state" established in 1744 in the area around Riyadh, rapidly expanded and briefly controlled most of the present-day territory of Saudi Arabia,[99] sacking Karbala in 1802 and capturing Mecca in 1803, but was destroyed by 1818 by the Ottoman viceroy of Egypt, Mohammed Ali Pasha. [420] Most Saudis live in the Hejaz (35%), Najd (28%), and the Eastern Province (15%). [268], Saudi Arabia, together with Qatar and Turkey, openly supported the Army of Conquest,[269] an umbrella group of anti-government forces fighting in the Syrian Civil War that reportedly included an al-Qaeda linked al-Nusra Front and another Salafi coalition known as Ahrar al-Sham. [80], After the conquest of the Hejaz, the Ikhwan leadership's objective switched to expansion of the Wahhabist realm into the British protectorates of Transjordan, Iraq and Kuwait, and began raiding those territories. [97] This alliance formed in the 18th century provided the ideological impetus to Saudi expansion and remains the basis of Saudi Arabian dynastic rule today. Backs Saudi-Led Yemeni Bombing With Logistics, Spying, Saudi-led coalition strikes rebels in Yemen, inflaming tensions in region, "The Yemen war death toll is five times higher than we think – we can't shrug off our responsibilities any longer", 'Army of Conquest' rebel alliance pressures Syria regime, "Turkey and Saudi Arabia alarm the West by backing Islamist extremists the Americans had bombed in Syria", "CIA and Saudi weapons for Syrian rebels fueled black market arms trafficking, report says", "Saudi Arabia Hajj disaster death toll rises", "Death toll in Saudi haj disaster at least 2,070: Reuters tally", "Hajj stampede: Saudis face growing criticism over deaths", "From scrapped arms deals to pleas for democracy: why Sweden is the only Western country standing up to Saudi Arabia", "Egypt Protests could spread to other countries", "Top Saudi Officials Head to Qatar in Effort to Heal Rift", "Qatar-Gulf crisis: Your questions answered", "Saudi-Canada trade row: What business is at stake? È una località turistica piuttosto apprezzata dagli amanti del mare e del relax. Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary. In January 2020, several other WWE superstars casted doubt over visiting Saudi, following the heightened tensions in Middle East due to assassination of Qassem Soleimani. In 2018 the Al Jouf Agricultural Development Company received a certificate of merit from The Guinness World Records for the largest modern olive plantation in the world. [319] In May 2012, British defence giant BAE signed a £1.9bn ($3bn) deal to supply Hawk trainer jets to Saudi Arabia.[320]. Viaggiamo è un magazine online che propone offerte viaggi, sconti lastminute di soggiorni viaggio, pacchetti vacanza hotel + volo, promozioni volo low cost in Italia e all’estero. Further cultural developments include the first Saudi public concerts by a female singer, the first Saudi sports stadiums to admit women, and an increased presence of women in the workforce. In 2017, Saudi Arabia imposed a land, naval and air blockade on Qatar. [88] Al-Muntafiq tribe later took over the region and came under Ottoman suzerainty. Since 2008, the operation of urban water distribution systems is being gradually delegated to private companies as well. Although this is normally translated as "the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia" in English,[49] it literally means "the Saudi Arab kingdom",[50] or "the Arab Saudi Kingdom". [510], Five cultural sites in Saudi Arabia are designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Al-Hijr Archaeological Site (Madâin Sâlih);[511] the Turaif district in the city of Diriyah;[512] Historic Jeddah, the Gate to Mecca;[513] Al-Ahsa Oasis;[514] and Rock Art in the Hail Region. Since 2000, the government has increasingly relied on the private sector to operate water and sanitation infrastructure, beginning with desalination and wastewater treatment plants.

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